SHRDLU

Wikipedia 英語版の SHRDLU の記事ページの翻訳です。

 

 

SHRDLU

SHRDLU was an early natural language understanding computer program, developed by Terry Winograd at MIT in 1968–1970. In it, the user carries on a conversation with the computer, moving objects, naming collections and querying the state of a simplified "blocks world", essentially a virtual box filled with different blocks.

SHRDLU は 1968年-1970年、MITの Terry Winograd によって開発された初期の自然言語理解コンピュータプログラムでした。その中で、ユーザは、コンピュータとの会話、オブジェクトの移動、コレクションの命名、および単純化された「ブロック世界」の状態への問い合わせを行います。

SHRDLU was written in the Micro Planner and Lisp programming language on the DEC PDP-6 computer and a DEC graphics terminal. Later additions were made at the computer graphics labs at the University of Utah, adding a full 3D rendering of SHRDLU's "world".

SHRDLUは、DEC PDP-6コンピュータとDECグラフィックス端末を使い、Micro PlannerとLispプログラミング言語で書かれています。その後、ユタ大学のコンピュータグラフィックスラボで強化され、3Dレンダリングによる SHRDLUの「世界」のが追加されました。

The name SHRDLU was derived from ETAOIN SHRDLU, the arrangement of the letter keys on a Linotype machine, arranged in descending order of usage frequency in English.

SHRDLUという名前は、ETAOIN SHRDLU(英語の使用頻度の降順に並べられたLinotypeマシン上の文字キーの配列)から派生したものです。

 

Functionality(機能)

SHRDLU was primarily a language parser that allowed user interaction using English terms. The user instructed SHRDLU to move various objects around in the "blocks world" containing various basic objects: blocks, cones, balls, etc. What made SHRDLU unique was the combination of four simple ideas that added up to make the simulation of "understanding" far more convincing.

SHRDLUは主に、英語の用語を使用したユーザーの対話を可能にする言語パーサーでした。ユーザーはSHRDLUに、ブロック、コーン、ボールなどのさまざまな基本オブジェクトを含む「ブロック世界」内のさまざまなオブジェクトを移動するように指示しました。SHRDLUをユニークなものにしたのは、4つのシンプルなアイデアを組み合わせたもので、「理解」のシミュレーションをはるかに説得力のあるものにするために追加されました。

One was that SHRDLU's world was so simple that the entire set of objects and locations could be described by including as few as perhaps 50 words: nouns like "block" and "cone", verbs like "place on" and "move to", and adjectives like "big" and "blue". The possible combinations of these basic language building blocks were quite simple, and the program was fairly adept at figuring out what the user meant.

ひとつは、SHRDLUの世界がとてもシンプルで、オブジェクトや場所のセット全体が、おそらくは50語程度の単語を含めることで記述できるということでした。「ブロック」や「コーン」のような名詞、「上に置く」や「移動する」などの動詞、 「ビッグ」や「ブルー」のような形容詞があります。これらの基本言語ビルディングブロックの可能な組み合わせは非常に単純であり、プログラムはユーザーの意図を理解するのにかなり熟練していました。

SHRDLU also included a basic memory to supply context. One could ask SHRDLU to "put the green cone on the red block" and then "take the cone off"; "the cone" would be taken to mean the green cone one had just talked about. SHRDLU could search back further through the interactions to find the proper context in most cases when additional adjectives were supplied. One could also ask questions about the history, for instance one could ask "did you pick up anything before the cone?"

SHRDLUには、コンテキストを提供するための基本的なメモリも含まれていました。 SHRDLUに「赤いブロックに緑色の円錐を置き、次に円錐を取り除く」よう求めることができます。 「コーン」は、ちょうど話していた緑色のコーンを意味すると解釈されます。 SHRDLUは、付加的な形容詞が供給されたほとんどの場合、適切な文脈を見つけるために相互作用を通してさらに検索することができる。また、履歴に関する質問をすることもできます。たとえば「あなたはコーンの前に何かを拾いましたか?」と聞くことができます。

A side effect of this memory, and the original rules SHRDLU was supplied with, is that the program could answer questions about what was possible in the world and what was not. For instance, SHRDLU would deduce that blocks could be stacked by looking for examples, but would realize that triangles couldn't be stacked, after having tried it. The "world" contained basic physics to make blocks fall over, independent of the language parser.

このメモリの副作用とSHRDLUが提供した元のルールは、プログラムが世界で可能だったこととそうでなかったことについての質問に答えることができるということです。例えば、SHRDLUは、ブロックを例を見て積み重ねることができると推測しますが、三角形を積み重ねることはできませんでした。 「世界」には、言語パーサとは独立した、ブロックを引き継ぐ基本的な物理が含まれていました。

Finally, SHRDLU could also remember names given to objects, or arrangements of them. For instance one could say "a steeple is a small triangle on top of a tall rectangle"; SHRDLU could then answer questions about steeples in the blocks world, and build new ones.

最後に、SHRDLUはオブジェクトに与えられた名前やそれらのアレンジを覚えています。たとえば、「尖塔は背の高い四角形の上にある小さな三角形です」と言うことができます。 SHRDLUはブロック世界の尖塔について質問に答えることができ、新しいものを作ることができます。

 

Excerpt(抜粋)

Here is a famous demonstration of SHRDLU:[1]

ここにSHRDLUの有名なデモンストレーションがあります:

 

Person: Pick up a big red block.
Computer: OK.
Person: Grasp the pyramid.
Computer: I DON'T UNDERSTAND WHICH PYRAMID YOU MEAN.
Person (changing their mind): Find a block which is taller than the one you are holding and put it into the box.
Computer: BY "IT", I ASSUME YOU MEAN THE BLOCK WHICH IS TALLER THAN THE ONE I AM HOLDING.
Computer: OK.
Person: What does the box contain?
Computer: THE BLUE PYRAMID AND THE BLUE BLOCK.
Person: What is the pyramid supported by?
Computer: THE BOX.
Person: How many blocks are not in the box?
Computer: FOUR OF THEM.
Person: Is at least one of them narrower than the one which i told you to pick up?
Computer: YES, THE RED CUBE.
Person: Is it supported?
Computer: YES, BY THE TABLE.
Person: Can the table pick up blocks?
Computer: NO.
Person: Can a pyramid be supported by a block?
Computer: YES.
Person: Can a pyramid support a pyramid?
Computer: I DON'T KNOW.
Person: Stack up two pyramids.
Computer: I CAN'T.
Person: Will you please stack up both of the red blocks and either a green cube or a pyramid?
Computer: OK.
Person: Which cube is sitting on the table?
Computer: THE LARGE GREEN ONE WHICH SUPPORTS THE RED PYRAMID.
Person: Is there a large block behind a pyramid?
Computer: YES, THREE OF THEM: A LARGE RED ONE, A LARGE GREEN CUBE, AND THE BLUE ONE.
Person: Put a small one onto the green cube which supports a pyramid.
Computer: OK.
Person: Put the littlest pyramid on top of it.
Computer: OK.
Person: Does the shortest thing the tallest pyramid's support supports support anything green?
Computer: YES, THE GREEN PYRAMID.
Person: What color is it?
Computer: BY "IT", I ASSUME YOU MEAN THE SHORTEST THING THE TALLEST PYRAMID'S SUPPORT SUPPORTS.
Computer: RED
Person: How many things are on top of green cubes?
Computer: I'M NOT SURE WHAT YOU MEAN BY "ON TOP OF "IN THE PHRASE "ON TOP OF GREEN CUBES " .
DO YOU MEAN:
1 - DIRECTLY ON THE SURFACE
2 - ANWHERE ON TOP OF ?
Person: 2
Computer: THREE OF THEM.
Person: Had you touched any pyramid before you put the green one on the little cube?
Computer: YES, THE GREEN ONE.
Person: When did you pick it up?
Computer: WHILE I WAS STACKING UP THE RED CUBE, A LARGE RED BLOCK AND A LARGE GREEN CUBE.
Person: Why?
Computer: TO GET RID OF IT.
Person: Why did you do that?
Computer: TO CLEAN OFF THE RED CUBE.
Person: Why did you clear off that cube?
Computer: TO PUT IT ON A LARGE GREEN CUBE.
Person: Why did you do that?
Computer: TO STACK UP THE RED CUBE , A LARGE RED BLOCK AND A LARGE GREEN CUBE.
Person: Why did you do that?
Computer: BECAUSE YOU ASKED ME TO.
Person: How did you do it?
Computer: BY PUTTING A LARGE RED BLOCK ON THE TABLE ; THEN LETTING GO OF IT ; THEN PUTTING A LARGE GREEN CUBE ON IT ; THEN LETTING GO OF THAT CUBE ; THEN PUTTING THE RED CUBE ON THAT CUBE; THEN LETTING GO OF THAT CUBE.
Person: How many objects did you touch while you were doing it?
Computer: FOUR OF THEM.
Person: What did the red cube support before you started to clean it off?
Computer: THE GREEN PYRAMID.
Person: There were five blocks to the left of the box then.
Computer: NO, ONLY FOUR OF THEM: THE RED CUBE, TWO LARGE GREEN CUBES AND A LARGE RED BLOCK.
Person: Put the blue pyramid on the block in the box.
Computer: OK.
Person: Is there anything which is bigger than every pyramid but is not as wide as the thing that supports it?
Computer: YES, THE BLUE BLOCK.
Person: Does a steeple
Computer (interrupting): SORRY, I DON'T KNOW THE WORD "STEEPLE".
Person: A "steeple" is a stack which contains two green cubes and a pyramid.
Computer: I UNDERSTAND.
Person: Are there any steeples now?
Computer: NO.
Person: Build one.
Computer: OK.
Person: Call the biggest block "superblock".
Computer: OK.
Person: Have you picked superblock up since we began?
Computer: YES.
Person: Why did you drop it?
Computer: BY "IT", I ASSUME YOU MEAN THE SUPERBLOCK.
I CAN'T EXPLAIN A NON-EXISTENT EVENT.
Person: Is there anything to the right of the red pyramid?
Computer: YES, FOUR THINGS: THE BOX , THE RED CUBE, THE BLUE PYRAMID AND THE BLOCK NAMED SUPERBLOCK
Person: Thank you.
Computer: YOU'RE WELCOME!

 

Consequences(結論)

SHRDLU was considered a tremendously successful demonstration of AI. This led other AI researchers to excessive optimism which was soon lost when later systems attempted to deal with situations with a more realistic level of ambiguity and complexity. Subsequent efforts of the SHRDLU type, such as Cyc, have tended to focus on providing the program with considerably more information from which it can draw conclusions.

SHRDLUは、AIの非常に成功したデモと見なされました。これにより、他の人工知能研究者は過度の楽観主義に陥り、後のシステムがより現実的なレベルのあいまいさと複雑さを伴う状況に対処しようとするとすぐに失われました。 CycのようなSHRDLUタイプのその後の努力は、結論を引き出すことができるかなり多くの情報をプログラムに提供することに焦点を当てる傾向がありました。

Though not intentionally developed as such, SHRDLU is considered the first known formal example of interactive fiction, as the user interacts with simple commands to move objects around a virtual environment, though lacking the distinct story-telling normally present in interactive fiction. The 1976-1977 game Colossal Cave Adventure is broadly considered to be the first true work of interactive fiction.[2]

そのような意図を持って開発されたものではありませんが、SHRDLUはインタラクティブ・フィクションの正式な最初の例であると考えられています。1976年〜1977年のゲーム "Colossal Cave Adventure" は、インタラクティブ・フィクションの最初の真の作品であると広く考えられています。

 

See also(関連情報)

 

References(参考文献)

 

External links(外部リンク)